Urbanization as a facilitator of gene flow in a human health pest

Urban fragmentation can reduce gene flow that isolates populations, reduces genetic diversity and increases population differentiation, all of which have negative conservation implications. Alternatively, gene flow may actually be increased among …

Merging data frames

In R, there is often the need to merge two data.frame objects (say one with individual samples and the other with population coordinates. The merge() function is a pretty awesome though it may take a little getting used to. Here are some things to remember: You need to have two data.frame objects to merge The first one in the function call will be the one merged _on-to _the second one is added to the first. Each will need a column to use as an index—it is a column that will be used to match rows of data. If they are the same column names then the function will do it automagically, if no common names are found in the names() of either data.frame objects, you can specify the columns using the optional by.x= and by.y= function arguments.